How to Become a Vascular Surgeon?


Becoming a vascular surgeon takes time, study, and dedication. However, if you’re looking for a specialization that pays well and also provides ample time for yourself, a career in vascular surgery can be very rewarding. Vascular surgeons treat conditions that affect the vascular system. In this guide, you will learn everything you need to start an exciting career as a vascular surgeon. 

Who is a Vascular Surgeon? 

As a vascular surgeon, your primary responsibility is to diagnose, treat, and manage conditions impacting the body’s vascular system, including arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels.  Your daily work involves performing intricate surgical procedures to treat blockages, aneurysms, and other disorders that impair proper blood flow. 

Moreover, you will work closely with a team of medical professionals, including nurses, anesthesiologists, and radiologists, to ensure the best possible care for your patients. 

While your surgical skills are paramount, you’ll also monitor your patients’ progress, adjust treatment plans as needed, and offer guidance on lifestyle modifications to promote long-term vascular health. 

In addition to your clinical duties, vascular surgeons dedicate time to staying up-to-date with the latest advancements in vascular surgery. Attending conferences and learning through online vascular surgery lectures helps you maintain your knowledge of the latest techniques. 

Educational Requirements for Vascular Surgery 

If you want to become a vascular surgeon, you’ll need to buckle up for a long and intensive educational ride. It requires mastering different medical fields and getting specialized surgical training over many years. 

Undergraduate Degree 

Your undergraduate years are like laying the groundwork for your future surgical expertise.  There’s no single perfect major, but courses in biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics are your best friends. These subjects will equip you with the scientific knowledge needed to understand the intricate workings of the vascular system and the diseases that affect it. Premed programs are also a great option, offering a structured path to prepare for medical school. 

Medical School 

The next step is to obtain a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) from an accredited medical school. Medical school is a rigorous four-year program where you learn deep medical knowledge. Expect courses covering everything from physiology and pharmacology to pathology and ethics. You’ll also gain valuable clinical experience through rotations in different medical specialties, which might even give you a taste of vascular surgery. 

Residency Training 

After completing medical school, you must complete a residency program in general surgery. The residency typically lasts five to seven years. During this intense training period, residents gain extensive experience in all aspects of general surgery, including diagnosis, pre-operative evaluation, surgical procedures, and post-operative care. 

Vascular Surgery Fellowship 

After completing a general surgery residency, aspiring vascular surgeons typically pursue additional subspecialty training through a vascular surgery fellowship. These programs provide advanced, focused training in vascular diseases and conditions. 

During the fellowship, you will gain experience in vascular surgery procedures like 

  • endovascular techniques (such as angioplasty, stenting, and endovascular aneurysm repair),  
  • open surgical reconstructions (like bypass surgeries and endarterectomies), and 
  • management of conditions like peripheral artery disease, aortic aneurysms, carotid artery disease, and venous disorders. 

Vascular surgery fellowships typically last one to two years. To be eligible, you must have completed an accredited general surgery residency program and have your medical license. During the fellowship, you also want to participate in research activities and publish your findings in peer-reviewed medical journals.  

Licensure and Certification 

Before you are allowed to operate on a patient as a vascular surgeon, you must have licensure and certification. 

Medical Licensing Examination 

Your medical license is your official permission to practice medicine. You must complete the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) to obtain this in the United States. This three-step exam series assesses your knowledge and skills across various medical disciplines. Passing all three steps is mandatory for licensure in most states. 

Board Certification in Vascular Surgery 

A medical license allows you to practice medicine generally, and board certification elevates you to a specialist level. For vascular surgery, this designation comes from the American Board of Surgery (ABS). The path involves: 

  • Vascular Surgery Residency: Completing your residency training in vascular surgery is a prerequisite for board certification. 
  • Qualifying Exams: The ABS administers two exams – the Vascular Surgery Qualifying Exam (VSQE) and the Certifying Exam (VSCE). Passing both demonstrates your in-depth knowledge and surgical skills specific to vascular surgery. 
  • Maintaining Certification: Board certification isn’t a one-time achievement. To maintain it, surgeons must participate in continuing medical education (CME) activities to stay updated on the latest advancements in the field. 

Medical Licensure is the foundation, while board certification is the mark of a highly qualified vascular surgeon. Both are crucial steps in becoming a respected expert in this specialized field. 


Becoming a vascular surgeon requires a long and challenging journey. However, it offers the opportunity to provide exceptional patient care and make a meaningful impact. From learning the fundamentals of science to mastering intricate surgical procedures, every step prepares you to understand and treat conditions of the vascular system. 


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